Uudiseid mujalt

NEW ZEALAND- ON THE FRONT LINE: QUANTITATIVE VIRUS DYNAMICS IN HONEYBEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) COLONIES ALONG A NEW EXPANSION FRONT OF THE PARASITE VARROA DESTRUCTOR

Apinews - 21. august 2014 - 23:45
 QUANTITATIVE VIRUS DYNAMICS IN HONEYBEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) COLONIES ALONG A NEW EXPANSION FRONT OF THE PARASITE VARROA DESTRUCTOR

Paper prepared by Fanny Mondet,  Joachim R. de Miranda,  Andre Kretzschmar,  Yves Le Conte and  Alison R. Mercer. Please download attached document

 

 

 

Abstract

Over the past fifty years, annual honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony losses have been steadily increasing worldwide. These losses have occurred in parallel with the global spread of the honeybee parasite Varroa destructor. Indeed, Varroa mite infestations are considered to be a key explanatory factor for the widespread increase in annual honeybee colony mortality. The host-parasite relationship between honeybees and Varroa is complicated by the mite's close association with a range of honeybee viral pathogens. The 10-year history of the expanding front of Varroa infestation in New Zealand offered a rare opportunity to assess the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes in honeybee viral landscapes in response to the arrival, spread and level of Varroa infestation. We studied the impact of de novo infestation of bee colonies by Varroa on the prevalence and titres of seven well-characterised honeybee viruses in both bees and mites, using a large-scale molecular ecology approach. We also examined the effect of the number of years since Varroa arrival on honeybee and mite viral titres. The dynamic shifts in the viral titres of black queen cell virus and Kashmir bee virus mirrored the patterns of change in Varroa infestation rates along the Varroa expansion front. The deformed wing virus (DWV) titres in bees continued to increase with Varroa infestation history, despite dropping infestation rates, which could be linked to increasing DWV titres in the mites. This suggests that the DWV titres in mites, perhaps boosted by virus replication, may be a major factor in maintaining the DWV epidemic after initial establishment. Both positive and negative associations were identified for several pairs of viruses, in response to the arrival of Varroa. These findings provide important new insights into the role of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in influencing the viral landscape that affects honeybee colonies.

UNITED KINGDOM- A VIRULENT STRAIN OF DEFORMED WING VIRUS (DWW) OF HONEYBEES (APIS MELLIFERA) PREVAILS AFTER VARROA DESTRUCTOR-MEDIATED, OR IN VITRO, TRANSMISSION

Apinews - 21. august 2014 - 23:38
UNITED KINGDOM- A VIRULENT STRAIN OF DEFORMED WING VIRUS (DWW) OF HONEYBEES (APIS MELLIFERA) PREVAILS AFTER VARROA DESTRUCTOR-MEDIATED, OR IN VITRO, TRANSMISSION

Paper prepared by Eugene V. Ryabov,  Graham R. Wood,  Jessica M. Fannon,  Jonathan D. Moore,  James C. Bull,  Dave Chandler,  Andrew Mead,  Nigel Burroughs and David J. Evans. Please download attached document

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

The globally distributed ectoparasite Varroa destructor is a vector for viral pathogens of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera), in particular the Iflavirus Deformed Wing Virus (DWV). In the absence of Varroa low levels DWV occur, generally causing asymptomatic infections. Conversely, Varroa-infested colonies show markedly elevated virus levels, increased overwintering colony losses, with impairment of pupal development and symptomatic workers. To determine whether changes in the virus population were due Varroa amplifying and introducing virulent virus strains and/or suppressing the host immune responses, we exposed Varroa-naïve larvae to oral and Varroa-transmitted DWV. We monitored virus levels and diversity in developing pupae and associated Varroa, the resulting RNAi response and transcriptome changes in the host. Exposed pupae were stratified by Varroa association (presence/absence) and virus levels (low/high) into three groups. Varroa-free pupae all exhibited low levels of a highly diverse DWV population, with those exposed per os (group NV) exhibiting changes in the population composition. Varroa-associated pupae exhibited either low levels of a diverse DWV population (group VL) or high levels of a near-clonal virulent variant of DWV (group VH). These groups and unexposed controls (C) could be also discriminated by principal component analysis of the transcriptome changes observed, which included several genes involved in development and the immune response. All Varroa tested contained a diverse replicating DWV population implying the virulent variant present in group VH, and predominating in RNA-seq analysis of temporally and geographically separate Varroa-infested colonies, was selected upon transmission from Varroa, a conclusion supported by direct injection of pupae in vitro with mixed virus populations. Identification of a virulent variant of DWV, the role of Varroa in its transmission and the resulting host transcriptome changes furthers our understanding of this important viral pathogen of honeybees.

USA- BEEKEEPING SEMINAR IN BALTIMORE

Apinews - 21. august 2014 - 22:47
USA- BEEKEEPING SEMINAR IN BALTIMORE

On Saturday, Sept. 13, 2014  from 10 a.m. until 4pm sponsored by the Howard County Beekeepers Association, at the Robinson Nature Center.  The program will include  bee biology, beekeeping equipment, how and why to keep bees and what products come from the hive.

USA- LA NIÑA AND EL NIÑO FORECAST

Apinews - 21. august 2014 - 21:53
USA- LA NIÑA AND EL NIÑO FORECAST

Prepared on August  2014 by The International Research Institute for Climate and Society

USA- WORLDWIDE TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION FORECAST

Apinews - 21. august 2014 - 21:43
USA- WORLDWIDE TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION FORECAST

Prepared on  August 2014 by The International Research Institute for Climate and Society

 

 

 

 

 

USA- EARLY DIABETIS DETECTION SYSTEM USING HONEYBEES

Apinews - 21. august 2014 - 21:28
USA- EARLY DIABETIS DETECTION  SYSTEM USING HONEYBEES

According to the World Health Organization, the prevalence of diabetes has accelerated the most in urbanized areas of developing countries due to higher risk factors such as lack of physical activity and easy access to fast food. The threat of diabetes in developing countries is particularly worrying as over a third of those living with diabetes are unaware of their health situation. Late diagnosis and delay in diabetes management can lead to many health complications and a higher rate of morbidity.

GEORGIA- DISCOVER FRUITS PRESERVED IN HONEY IN THE PREHISTORIC PERIOD

Apinews - 21. august 2014 - 21:12
GEORGIA- DISCOVER FRUITS PRESERVED IN HONEY IN THE PREHISTORIC PERIOD

In  Georgia discovered a mound of the Early Bronze Age. From beneath the burial mound, archaeologists have drawn wild fruits in good condition that had been placed in the tomb as food for the souls of the dead and had been underground for thousands of years. However, they were so well preserved that, after uncovering the grave, smelled as fresh fruit.

 

 

La edad del bronce dió  inició en el  Próximo Oriente a finales del IV milenio a.C., en Asia Menor antes del 3000 a. C.; en la antigua Grecia a mediados del 3000 a. C.; en Asia Central alrededor del 2000 a. C., en Afganistán, Turkmenistán e Irán y en China desde  1800 a. C.

SPAIN- CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS-MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A NEW APPROACH TO ANALYZE NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES

Apinews - 21. august 2014 - 21:06
SPAIN- CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS-MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A NEW APPROACH TO ANALYZE NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES

Paper prepared by  Laura Sánchez-Hernández, Deamelys Hernández-Domínguez, José Bernal, Christian Neusü, María T. Martín and  José L. Bernal

 

 

Highlights

  • Neonicotinoid insecticides were analyzed by CE–ESI-MS for the first time.
  • The seven neonicotinoids were simultaneously determined in less than 11 min.
  • Low limits of quantification were achieved for all compounds (3.5–7.2 μg/L).
  • Trace levels of neonicotinoids were monitored in beeswax with the proposed method.
  • Oxalic acid has proven to be effective to remove neonicotinoids from beeswax.

 

Abstract

This paper represents the first report of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method compatible with mass spectrometry (MS) detection for simultaneously analyzing seven neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam). Different variables affecting CE separation (buffer concentration, pH, applied voltage and injection time) and MS detection (electrospray parameters) were studied. Low limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were achieved for all analytes, ranging from 1.0 to 2.3 μg/L, and from 3.5 to 7.2 μg/L, respectively. In addition, the proposed method showed itself to be linear in the range from LOQ to 1000 μg/L and to be precise, as the relative standard deviations of the migration times were lower than 4% in all cases. Finally, the proposed CE–MS method was applied to assess the efficacy of a beeswax cleaning treatment with oxalic acid to remove residues of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids (clothianidin

 

 

Söisitkö sinä kuhnuritoukkia? Kokeile vaikka munakkaan muodossa

Hunajalla höystettyä - 21. august 2014 - 10:43


Hiipivätkö hyönteiset ruokapöytiin myös länsimaissa?
Mehiläisistä on moneksi. Saamme niiltä hunajaa, siitepölyä, propolista, pölytystä. Voimme myös syödä mehiläisten kuhnuritoukkia. Proteiinirikasta ruokaa, jota FAO:kin suosittelee.

Ymmärrän, että nyt joku kauhistuu siitä, että syömme mehiläisiä, vaikka niiden vähenemisestä muutenkin uutisoidaan. Ei kuitenkaan kannata huolestua. Kuten jo aiemmin blogissa kerrottiin, kuhnuritoukkia poistetaan mehiläispesästä yhtenä hoitotoimenpiteenä varroapunkkeja vastaan. Tarhaajat eivät siis syömisen iloksi toukkia pesistä poimi. Normaalisti poistetut kuhnurikennot jätetään esim. lintujen syötäväksi tai heitetään roskiin, mutta jotkut tarhaajat (minä mukaan lukien) syövät kuhnurit itse. Moni mehiläistarhaaja onkin edelläkävijä tässä hyönteisten syömisessä, koska moni kokenut tarhaaja kertoo syöneensä kuhnureita jo iät ja ajat.

Sokkomaistaja piti eniten
Teimme viime viikolla pakastamistamme kuhnureista munakasta. Kuhnurimunakas jakoi raadin kahtia: osa tykkäsi, osa ei. Maku on kieltämättä erilainen, kuin mihin olemme tottuneet. Luoksemme syömään tuli myös ”sokkovieras”, jolle emme kertoneet, mitä munakkaassa on (onneksi hän ei pahastunut). Yllätykseksemme hän piti munakkaasta meistä kaikista eniten ja halusi lisääkin. Kuulemma toukkien koostumus sopi munakkaaseen hyvin. Vieraamme arvaus oli, että munakkaassa on maksaa. Itse en sitä makua havainnut, mutta makuasioista ei sovi kiistellä.

Kuhnurintoukkareseptejä ei ole vielä paljon liikenteessä, joten ilomielin kuulemme vinkit ja kommentit.

Kuhnuritoukat katoavat muun aineksen joukkoon munakaspannulla.
Kuhnurimunakas
  • voita
  • 4 munaa
  • 0,5 dl maitoa tai kermaa
  • kourallinen kuhnurintoukkia (tuoreita tai pakastettuja)
  • tomaattia viipaloituna
  • 1 sipuli
  • juustoa raastettuna
  • valkopippuria
  • basilikaa ja muita haluamiasi mausteita


Erottele kuhnurintoukat kennosta. Pakastetusta kennosta ne popsahtavat helposti irti. Pienet kennonmuruset seassa ei haittaa.
Viipaloi sipuli ja tomaatti. Sekoita munat, maito ja mausteet. Paista toukkia ja sipulia voissa teflonpannulla. Lisää munamaitoseos ja ripottele tuoretta basilikaa  ja juustoraastetta munakkaan päälle. Lisää myös viipaloidut tomaatit. Laita kansi päälle ja anna kypsyä miedolla lämmöllä. Voit halutessasi taittaa munakkaan kaksin kerroin. Syö esim. salaatin kera.

Hyönteisproteiinista vaihtoehto?Miksi hyönteissyönnistä on viime aikoina puhuttu niin paljon? Maatalousmaan vähetessä ja väestön kasvaessa on etsittävä vaihtoehtoisia proteiininlähteitä. Hyönteisistä kaavaillaan yhtä mahdollisuutta: niitä on helppo kasvattaa suuria määriä, niiden hyötysuhde on hyvä (tarvitsevat vähän rehua, tuottavat paljon proteiinia) ja hyönteiskasvatuksessa päästöt ovat pieniä.

Mitään uutta hyönteiset syömisessä ei sinänsä ole. Jo nyt arviolta 2 miljardia ihmistä käyttää hyönteisiä ravintonaan. Syötäviä lajeja tunnetaan noin 1900.

Hyönteisten syönti on juuri nyt ajankohtaista Suomessakin. Tulevana perjantaina Pasilan kääntöpöydällä on Haarukanjäljen tapahtuma ”Ovatko hyönteiset tulevaisuuden ruokaa?”. Siellä keskustellaan hyönteisten ravintokäytöstä. Tilaisuudessa on myös ruokanäytöksiä: kuhnurintoukkia ja muita hyönteisiä eri ruokien muodossa. Valitettavasti hyönteisiä ei saa julkisissa tilaisuuksissa tarjoilla EU:n elintarvikelainsäädönnön vuoksi. Siihen hätään jokainen voi kokeilla itse ötökkäruokaa.

-Tuula


Kuhnurintoukat ovat proteiinipitoista ravintoa.
  • Haarukanjälki: Ovatko hyönteiset tulevaisuuden ruokaa?  Perjantaina 22.8. klo 17:30 Kääntöpöytä, Pasilan vanhat veturitallit, Tallikatu

  • Linkkejä hyönteisruokaan: 
          -Fao http://www.fao.org/forestry/edibleinsects/en/ 
          -Suomalaisen Santtu Vekkelin kirjoittama hyönteissyöntiblogi:                    http://hyonteistalous.blogspot.fi/ 

At California Resort, Bees Are a Plus

NYT - 20. august 2014 - 19:15
Carmel Valley Ranch in California will offer several bee-related programs during National Honey Month.

USA- HONEY IMPORTS JUNE 2014

Apinews - 20. august 2014 - 18:27
USA- HONEY IMPORTS JUNE 2014

During the month were imported 17,401 tons (+ 13.6%) , total  61.1 million dollars (+ 28.8%) at an average price in dollars per ton of 3,517 (+ 13.5%). In the year were imported  81,179 tonnes (-3.3%)  total d 281 million dollars (+ 5.1%) at an average price in dollars per ton of 3,458 (+ 8.9%). All percentage values with reference  to the same period last year. Please download the attached document

EE.UU.- IMPORTACIONES DE MIEL EN JUNIO 2014

Apinews - 20. august 2014 - 18:27
EE.UU.- IMPORTACIONES DE MIEL EN JUNIO 2014

En el mes se importaron

USA- HARVARD PROFESSOR SUSPECTS THAT HIVE COLLAPSES ARE CAUSED BY PESTICIDES, WHICH ALSO COULD HURT HUMAN HEALTH

Apinews - 20. august 2014 - 17:42
USA- HARVARD PROFESSOR SUSPECTS THAT HIVE COLLAPSES ARE CAUSED BY PESTICIDES, WHICH ALSO COULD HURT HUMAN HEALTH

Article written by  Alvin Powell

 

 

 

 

It’s become something of a rite of spring. Every March, newspaper stories sprout about local beekeepers opening their hives to find an ongoing environmental mystery.

Instead of hungry bees ready for the first flights of spring, honeycombs that should be empty after a long winter are full, and instead the hives are empty. For some reason, during winter’s coldest months, these bees chose to leave the hive to perish outside.

Colony collapse disorder, as the condition is known, remains a mystery with troubling implications for the fate of the human food supply, which depends, in part, on pollinators like the honeybee. Explanations that have been offered include pathogens, modern beekeeping practices, malnutrition, climate change, and pesticides.

It is that last possible cause that stands out to Harvard School of Public Health’s (HSPH) Chengsheng (Alex) Lu, an associate professor of environmental exposure biology, who believes that the potential human health implications of colony collapse disorder extend beyond the drop in pollination — though that is worrisome enough — to the impact on humans of long exposure to low-level poisons like neonicotinoid pesticides, which have been suspected in the bee disorder. To Lu, it is an open question whether there are links between the pesticide and the recent increase in neurological conditions in children such as autism and ADHD.

Western_honey_bee

Lu has continued to investigate the possible links among neonicotinoids, bees, and human health, saying the honeybee is a good model organism for potential pesticide impact, as well as for potential effects across generations. Credit: Wikipedia

To get to the bottom of the mystery, Lu has conducted pioneering research on the impact of neonicotinoid pesticides on honeybees. In a study published in 2012, he replicated colony collapse disorder experimentally, feeding bees sugar water with different levels of neonicotinoids over 13 weeks in the summer and watching what happened.

At first, nothing did. The hives seemed unaffected and healthy as they got ready for winter. Then, the week before Christmas, roughly three months after the neonicotinoid treatment was halted, hives began to fail. Eventually 15 of 16 hives collapsed, even those treated with the lowest dose.

The work was noted for providing a concrete link to neonicotinoids, which are the world’s most widely used group of insecticides.

One particularly disturbing aspect of the work, which Lu described during a lunchtime “Hot Topics” talk on Aug. 12 at HSPH’s Kresge Building, is that the bees that abandoned the hive during the collapse weren’t the individuals that ate the sugar water laced with neonicotinoids. During summer’s period of high activity, bees live just 35 days, so the colony that collapsed contained the next generation of bees, indicating that the effect may have been passed on between generations.

Lu has continued to investigate the possible links among neonicotinoids, bees, and human health, saying the honeybee is a good model organism for potential pesticide impact, as well as for potential effects across generations.

Neonicotinoids, chemicals similar to the nicotine produced by tobacco plants, have become widespread in part because of their ease of use, Lu said. Because they’re water-soluble, the chemicals are taken up by a plant and spread throughout its tissues. Seed companies have made distribution even easier for farmers by coating seeds with the chemical, which ensures the plants sprouting from them contain the pesticide.

The chemicals are present not just in food plants, but are also widely represented in nursery stock, including plants sold at major garden retailers, Lu said. They’re also found in the environment, and Lu said there are questions about their role in the loss of birds and aquatic invertebrates.

Lu described it as a race against time to save the bees, which are routinely transported around the country by commercial beekeepers to pollinate agricultural fields. He spoke to one blueberry farmer who said that before colony collapse disorder struck, he would pay $250,000 to have his fields pollinated. Today that figure stands at $750,000, and the cost is passed on to consumers.

Lu believes that the pesticide is fed to bees by unsuspecting beekeepers. The pesticide is widely used on corn, which is used to make high-fructose corn syrup. The corn syrup is mixed with water and routinely fed to bees by commercial beekeepers.

Affected bees, which include wild honeybees, Lu said, exhibit a range of neurological conditions, including disorientation, flying back to the wrong colonies, and abandoning colonies in winter.

“The [phrase] ‘bee-line’ is no longer valid,” Lu said. “The question … is do these things also apply to human health?”

EEC- REPORT SHOWS TRACEABILITY IN THE TOP OF THE SAFETY REGULATIONS IN THE EU

Apinews - 20. august 2014 - 17:36
EEC- REPORT SHOWS TRACEABILITY IN THE TOP OF THE SAFETY REGULATIONS IN THE  EU

Published in Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, the report evaluates and compares the traceability regulations of 21 Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries – finding that EU countries ranked highest when it comes to global food traceability regulations and requirements. According to the report, which ranked each country based on aggregated responses to a series of questions developed to assess their traceability policies and programs, EU member states and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries of Norway and Switzerland, all scored as ‘Superior’.

USA- CALL FOR COMMENTS OF THE FEDERAL STANDARD OF IDENTITY FOR HONEY

Apinews - 20. august 2014 - 17:29
USA- CALL FOR COMMENTS OF THE FEDERAL STANDARD OF IDENTITY FOR HONEY

The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the Department of Agriculture (USDA) is soliciting comments on how a Federal standard of identity for honey would be in the interest of consumers, the honey industry, and U.S. agriculture. Comments must be received by September 19, 2014.

 

 

 

Interested persons are invited to submit written comments via the Internet or to Brian E. Griffin, Standardization Branch, Specialty Crops Inspection Division, Fruit and Vegetable Program, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Room 0709-South Building; STOP 0247, Washington, DC 20250; telephone (202) 720-5021; fax (202) 690-1527,  or by email .

Comments should make reference to the date and page number of this issue of the Federal Register and will be made available for public inspection at the above office during regular business hours.Show citation box

Please be advised that all comments submitted in response to this notice will be included in the record and will be made available to the public on the Internet . Also, the identity of the individuals or entities submitting the comments will be made public.

SPAIN- ONE QUARTER OF THE BEEHIVES IN GALICIA ARE AFFECTED BY VESPA VELUTINA

Apinews - 20. august 2014 - 17:24
SPAIN- ONE QUARTER OF THE BEEHIVES  IN  GALICIA ARE AFFECTED BY VESPA VELUTINA

The Galician Beekeepers Association estimates that between 20,000 and 25,000 hives in Galicia have been attacked in recent weeks by the Asian hornet, especially in the municipalities of Vivero, Burela and Foz. "There are 109,000 registered hives of bees and one in four is damaged by the Asian hornet, between 20,000 and 25,000" calculated the technical secretary of the organization, Xesús Asorey

SPAIN- ONE QUARTER OF THE COLONY IN GALICIA ARE AFFECTED BY VESPA VELUTINA

Apinews - 20. august 2014 - 17:24
SPAIN- ONE QUARTER OF THE COLONY IN  GALICIA ARE AFFECTED BY VESPA VELUTINA

The Galician Beekeepers Association estimates that between 20,000 and 25,000 hives in Galicia have been attacked in recent weeks by the Asian hornet, especially in the municipalities of Vivero, Burela and Foz. "There are 109,000 registered hives of bees and one in four is damaged by the Asian hornet, between 20,000 and 25,000" calculated the technical secretary of the organization, Xesús Asorey

ARGENTINA- DELIVER HELP TO A ENTRE RIOS PROVINCE BEEKEEPING COOPERATIVE

Apinews - 20. august 2014 - 17:21
ARGENTINA- DELIVER HELP TO A ENTRE RIOS PROVINCE BEEKEEPING COOPERATIVE

The provincial government provided funds to 360.815 pesos to the  Beekeeping Cooperative Ayuí benefiting 15 families

PORTUGAL- FOREST LANDSCAPES AND GLOBAL CHANGE

Apinews - 20. august 2014 - 17:13
PORTUGAL- FOREST LANDSCAPES AND GLOBAL CHANGE

Book written by  João C. Azevedo, Ajith H. Perera and  M. Alice Pinto

 

 

 

 

  • A global analysis of drivers of change in forest landscapes and their ecological consequences
  • Emphasizes the challenges faced by forest researchers and managers who must cope with rapid change
  • Chapter authors provide a wide range of experience and perspectives to this volume

 

 

Climate change, land use change, and many other drivers of landscape modification are occurring at increasing rates globally. They affect ecological patterns and processes in forest landscapes, and modify ecosystem services derived from those ecosystems. All of this presents many new challenges to scientists and managers. Although it is not uncommon to encounter the terms “global change” and “landscape” together in the ecological literature, there has been no adequate global analysis of drivers of change in forest landscapes and their ecological consequences. Providing such an analysis is the goal of this volume: an exploration of the state of knowledge of global changes in forested landscapes, with an emphasis on their causes and effects, and the challenges faced by researchers and land managers who must cope with these changes.

 

Chapter 1.

Forest Landscape Ecology and Global Change: an Introduction.

 

Chapter 2.

Climate as an Agent of Change in Forest Landscapes.

 

Chapter 3.

Wildfires and Landscape Dynamics in Portugal

A Regional Assessment and Global Implications.

 

Chapter 4.

Humans as Agents of Change in Forest Landscapes.

 

Chapter 5.

Changes in the Ecosystem Services Provided by Forests and their Economic Valuation - A Review.

 

Chapter 6.

Carbon Fluxes and Storage in Forests and Landscapes.

 

Chapter 7.

Forest Landscape Change and Biodiversity Conservation.

 

Chapter 8. Landscape Assessment and Monitoring.

 

Chapter 9.

Forest Landscape Management in Response to Change: The Practicality.

 

Chapter 10.

Forest Landscape Ecology and Global Change: What are the Next Steps

CSECH REPUBLIC- INTERACTION OF A NOVEL ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE ISOLATED FROM THE VENOM OF SOLITARY BEE COLLETES DAVIESANUS WITH PHOSPHOLIPID VESICLES AND ESCHERICHIA COLI CELLS

Apinews - 20. august 2014 - 17:09
CSECH REPUBLIC- INTERACTION OF A NOVEL ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE ISOLATED FROM THE VENOM OF SOLITARY BEE COLLETES DAVIESANUS WITH PHOSPHOLIPID VESICLES AND ESCHERICHIA COLI CELLS

Paper prepared by Sabína Čujová, Lucie Bednárová, Jiřina Slaninová, Jakub Straka and Václav Čeřovský

 

 

 

Abstract

The peptide named codesane (COD), consisting of 18 amino acid residues and isolated from the venom of wild bee Colletes daviesanus (Hymenoptera : Colletidae), falls into the category of cationic α-helical amphipathic antimicrobial peptides. In our investigations, synthetic COD exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans but also noticeable hemolytic activity. COD and its analogs (collectively referred to as CODs) were studied for the mechanism of their action. The interaction of CODs with liposomes led to significant leakage of calcein entrapped in bacterial membrane-mimicking large unilamellar vesicles made preferentially from anionic phospholipids while no calcein leakage was observed from zwitterionic liposomes mimicking membranes of erythrocytes. The preference of CODs for anionic phospholipids was also established by the blue shift in the tryptophan emission spectra maxima when the interactions of tryptophan-containing COD analogs with liposomes were examined. Those results were in agreement with the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of CODs. Moreover, we found that the studied peptides permeated both the outer and inner cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli. This was determined by measuring changes in the fluorescence of probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine and detecting cytoplasmic β-galactosidase released during the interaction of peptides with E. coli cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that treatment of E. coli with one of the COD analogs caused leakage of bacterial content mainly from the septal areas of the cells.

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